Dr. Paul Leslie
As part of the course I taught online at Queens University over the summer, we investigated PLCs (professional learning communities), and the students were required to engage with one and report back on their success. As a follow up, I received an email the other day from a former student asking about PLCs. Here is an abridged version:
Hi Paul, I hope all is well. I was in your Collaborative Inquiry course during the summer. I honestly and truly enjoyed and learned a lot from the course. So much so that at my new job we recently had our first PLC meeting. It was quite awkward (which I know is to be expected). I was talking to my breakout group about building trust and getting to know one another. They asked me to share this with the larger group and I did (reluctantly being the 'new guy') and the principal of my program said that she would like to speak further to me about PLCs.
I am of course a bit nervous both being new to the school while still wanting to share all of the good things I learned. I am wondering if you have any suggestions as to how I should share? I believe all of my apprehensions go directly to the issue of trust in a PLC, but want to know how to best overcome this and present ideas effectively. Do you have any ideas or could point me in the direction of an article that would explain this? Sorry to bother, you but I feel that you were the best person to contact in this instance. Best regards, your student
My response was as follows:
Well, you have gotten off to a good start in your new position. That is great. As for the question of PLCs, you have identified the most crucial element. As a teacher, that is the very same element that we need to secure first in the classroom – is it safe to ask questions? To be me?
I have found a great deal of inspiration through the community of inquiry model (https://coi.athabascau.ca/coi-model/), which I think applies in many collaborative situations. I wrote a paper which is in review now about using this model to manage communities. The goal I think is to make the community feel safe through the social presence – making sure they understand the purpose of the community and letting each other know their own personal goals within the larger community. This is a great activity in itself to let the participants place themselves in the community and in a context where they feel they can contribute.
Also, you as facilitator, need to manage this process.
The next step is to clarify the notion of teaching presence. This is the guiding force of the community. These are the questions that we ask each other and more importantly, the include the permission to ask questions. If we expect questions and tell each other that we are expected to ask questions, when we actually do so, it is easier. You may have noted that even in our discussion boards, people still get a bit put out when some one asks a question or challenges them. However, that is the point. And we just do it in the context of learning.
Once we have social presence and teaching presence, then we will get cognitive presence, and not before.
Have a read of the two articles and look at the website and the actual model. It may take awhile for it all to sink in, but trust me, I have been relying on this model for at least 10 years and it still works perfectly.
Lately, I have been engaged in a variety of projects to help faculty prepare for our new learning space. One recurring item in my conversations and work is the notion "Making Thinking Visible". This is not a new topic for me (just search for the term)! The following discussion is part of a larger piece of work that I am sharing with colleagues in order to spark discussion about how to manage our new collaborative spaces that we will be moving into in the fall (January for our northern hemisphere audience).
Tell Show me what you think of / know about …
One of the most important elements of engaging students is ensuring that they know what to do.
- Do they know what to do right now in the class?
- Do they know what to do for next class?
- Do they know how all activities relate from…
- Preparation for class to …
- Classroom activity to …
- Assessment to …
- Unit outcomes to …
- Success by passing the unit to…
- Success by passing the unit to…
- Unit outcomes to …
- Assessment to …
- Classroom activity to …
- Preparation for class to …
The more clearly we can articulate opportunities and expectations, the more engaged our students will be. Concurrently, in order to help students see the relevance of their work, we also need to give them the tools, and the strategies to use those tools, to allow them to make their thinking visible.
They need to make their thinking visible to themselves first and then to their colleagues and peers, and finally to their stakeholders and assessors.
We need to make our expectations visible through as many means as reasonably possible.
In order to help students interact with ideas and content in meaningful ways, we need to provide strategies, or thinking routines, that can be employed in the classroom to help facilitate the learning process.
These routines can be a leverage point for us to help students extend their critical thinking beyond their normal limits. We need to get the thinking out of their heads and on to paper so that others can see it.
If we are Distinctly Student Centred, then it is our responsibility to ensure that all students participate – not for their own good, but for the good of those around them. If a student does not want to participate, that is their decision, and they should be encouraged to leave without penalty. However, it is your decision to let them stay and then adversely affect the rest of the class through their (in)actions.
The learning studio is designed to facilitate collaborative inquiry and support group work. Much of the activity in the class will be noisy and challenging. As the tutor, your role is to both offer content expertise and manage the process.
Managing the process:
At all times, ensure that the students are engaged in the class. The main reason students disengage is that they do not know what to do. A secondary reason is that they think you do not care. To help ensure engagement:
- Are students listening? Wait for attention. Wait… wait … keep waiting
- Are they participating? If not, why not? They may not have a pen!
- If you ask a question. Don’t immediately answer it for them.
- Do not be afraid to have quiet. Students need time to think.
If they have not prepared,
- Ask why not. Have they done anything at all? Can they still answer the question or participate in group work?
- Indicate the consequences, for their classmates. Highlight who has come from where, or given up what to be in the class. Stress the importance of being able to contribute to their classmates.
- Is there time for them to look at content?
In order to support students in their academic efforts, the notion of Idea Management can offer a series of processes and strategies that can tie together, both conceptually and practically, their interactions with important and recurring concepts. Such processes can be reflected in assessments that are designed to help students articulate their thoughts, to themselves, their academic communities and their assessors, in a coherent and complete manner.
Idea management is a notion that speaks to the highly interactive nature of the flipped classroom, a model that is quickly gaining prominence, especially in Australia and elsewhere. Many current assessment strategies include opportunities for students to demonstrate competency through a variety of practical activities. Students now need a structured, holistic approach to these assessments that will allow them to compile and curate the range of ideas, skills and concepts that they produce through their classroom and assessment work and that are related to the various practices they are expected to master. These processes will be designed to support their ability to recall and reuse concepts and strategies across units.
The ability to recall and reuse, and apply concepts speaks to the issue of threshold concepts. In many areas of study, the ability to be successful relies on students being able to grasp elemental concepts and then develop and build on those concepts. Variation theory, as means of working with threshold concepts provides a means of modelling activities that support student success.
Variation theory may be viewed as an application of Schema Theory (Ausubel) supported by Differentiation and the notion of Ill-structured knowledge domains (Spiro). Schema theory suggests that in order to understand a new concept, we must be able to place or attach it to the context of our current understanding. Ill-structured knowledge domains consider the idea that knowledge is not usually linear and hence requires a variety of ways to represent and understand it. Differentiation suggests that we all learn in different ways. Hence, variation theory suggests that we might learn better if we are given opportunities to interact with new knowledge in different ways in order to account for all of its permutations and combinations.
Feedback from a number of fellow colleagues in higher education suggest that a coherent strategy would be appreciated and would offer meaningful support, both longitudinally beyond the duration of a unit through a course, and concurrently across units. Feedback also supports the development of a coherent strategy that could be modelled for other units and courses. Feedback from literacy advisors indicates that there is need of an overarching strategy that can support students to address their other literacy needs and that can be used to track progress and to guide further personal development.
Idea Management and Student Work Space
The notion of a student work space refers to a set of tools, and processes to make the best use of these tools in the pursuit of excellence. One of the elements of this approach will be a curated collection of work to serve assessment purposes.
A structured work space for idea management outlined through assessments provides students a range of lifelong learning skills including communication and presentation skills, collaboration and participation skills, analysis through curation, and critical self-reflection. It also provides a set of skills that help students to function in a knowledge economy and that will provide coherency and consistency across the span of a student’s university career and hopefully beyond as they pursue lifelong learning.
The activities that support and are supported by this approach also speak to a range of learning items including learning styles. The notion of differentiation discusses the value of presenting information in different ways, and the need to consider the students learning styles as well as our own.
We need to consider how students take in information and ‘digest’ it. Most people learn in a variety of ways but will have a preference or a particular strength in learning in one of these ways. We also need to be very cautious not to generalize from our own experiences when trying to understand how others learn.
Students receive ideas and information from a variety of sources, and are expected to do a variety of things with that information:
Another way of viewing this work is to look at it through a sequential process.
Students themselves are often not aware of how they learn and so should be given the opportunity to experience multi-modal methodologies. For example:
- Auditory learners: Learn from or when hearing others talk.
- How: Let them talk! When they speak aloud they quickly realize they do or do not know what they are talking about.
- Let others talk
- Share videos online
- Visual learners: Need to see the information
- How: Write new concepts and vocabulary on the board – leave them there as a reference throughout the lesson
- Use presentation tools with graphic images with or instead of text.
- Let students design their own graphics and concepts maps.
- Kinesthetic learners: Need to move or physically interact with information
- How: Provide opportunity to take notes, remind them to write something down
- Let them get up and write on the board,
- Let them handle things (manipulatives – e.g. spreadsheets), “hands on” activities,
- Work in groups to make a concept map.
How do we then integrate these methods into our classes?
By providing structures for work spaces, associated classroom activities, and incorporating these processes into formal assessments, the faculty can encourage students to come to class much better prepared for the flipped classroom. By employing cloud storage tools to capture and share ideas, students should always have access to their work and be able to draw upon previous work and documentation.
The notion of “Making Thinking Visible” allows students and faculty to externalize their ideas – to literally take the ideas out of our heads – and through the use of various media create ‘discrete’ ideas which can be manipulated, shared, sequenced and put on display for others.
By using a few select, freely available tools, students can bring their old ideas with them to new classes. They can reflect on past work and make connections by virtue of having a range of thoughts and ideas arrayed before
Students should use their own cloud storage tools for the actual storage of their data in its various formats. There are a variety of different tools available.
Google is recommended because it offers a range of tools under one log-in account and is already widely used around the world. It also offers longevity for the account, easier access to other account holders, ample storage space and an integrated suite of tools.
The following is a selection of tools and purposes offered as examples.
Personal work space
provides ample cloud storage space (15GB)
Accessible from multiple devices and integrates into multiple platforms.
Can’t be forgotten at home.
Can’t be lost
provides a video platform.
can hold links, articles,
Profile, employment related groups and discussions
Great source of professional communities
Can be linked, used for communication, updated and shared
Community work space
- Google docs
- Synchronous editing
- Exports to Word, Excel, PPT.
- Supports forms
- Documents and videos from these platforms and from social media including Twitter, LinkedIn, etc. can be easily embedded.
- Discussion boards, wikis,
Assessment and Competency
Supports assessment documentation and provides various efficiency means for assessing and providing feedback
Quizzes and results
Can hold embedded documents, RSS feeds from Twitter, LinkedIn profile etc.
Can be used for reflective writing and exported.
Can be closed, shared, partially or fully public.
Personal folders can be shared in such a way as to support assessment of individual items.
Folders can be assessed for such aspects as:
Completeness / inclusion of
Instructor and / or peer feedback
Individual homework items
Reflections on activities
Presentation of contents
Ease of access to contents
Are the contents representative of some element of the unit e.g. real world examples of unit content found in media / imagery
In class activities need to be:
Related to the weekly content in various formats in order to allow for the flipped model to function.
Map from outcome to activity to assessment needs to be explicit.
Can incorporate a point system for the portfolio activities.
Need to consider recurring strategies that allow the students to be familiar with what they need to do and what tools they might need to use.
In my last post, I wrote about digital literacy and the mundane idea of document storage. The point, which I may not have actually mentioned, is that we need to be able to make our thinking visible to others. I have written about this topic several times (here and here for starters).
In the video below, Steven Johnson comments at about 3:45 that an idea is not a single thing, but rather a network. This is interesting but might be a bit misleading. We can debate the existence of complex ideas or simple ideas, but nevertheless I think that individual ideas exist and can be externalized into a visible format through the use of media to create meaningful narratives of learning.
We then take those ideas and string them together into networks of ideas. In the video, Steven Johnson talks about several notions surrounding the question, where do good ideas come from, including the 'slow hunch'. But, basically he says good ideas come from people sharing their ideas with others and beating them about, and bashing them against others' ideas and preconceptions about the world. He concludes by saying that, "Chance favours the connected mind".
So, how do we share our ideas more effectively with those around us and how do get others to share their ideas with us.
Watch the video...
I am working with my new team at WSU to review and find means of helping students to manage the many varied tasks and challenges involved in being a successful learner. One of the issues that has arisen in my work is the challenge of managing our documents and pieces of information. Document storage may seem like the epitome of mundane tasks, but I consider documents to be physical repositories (even with virtual or soft copy documents) of our ideas. Hence, storage and nomenclature become second only to the contents of the documents. If we cannot find each other’s ideas, then we are poorer for that.
An integrated approach to file storage and naming can serve a number of purposes. The architecture alone of a clear folder system can indicate the relevance or documents without even having to open a document. Document retrieval is also greatly enhanced, almost as a side effect, although we might argue that said retrieval is the primary purpose of a clear filing protocol. Often, we start be trying to find one document and end up looking in a dozen different places for it.
However, ideally, we want to start with a dozen different carefully itemized locations and quickly delve into the exact location for the one document we want to find.
However, the most important effect of being able to efficiently access our documents is to enhance our ability to access our ideas. As I have noted elsewhere, one form of practice for practitioners and / or students is to begin to wrestle with the myriad ill-structured domains of knowledge that they encounter in their daily professional life and employ what Jacobson and Spiro (1993) term, ‘cognitive flexibility’ to put their ideas into an accessible format that can be viewed and shared by other people. This practice will enable the practitioner to begin to both actively and passively share their ideas more readily and easily with their community of inquiry and, almost as a by-product, and with little tampering, provide a high-stakes showcase of competencies.
Similarly, in the process of epistemological curiosity, the practitioner can employ a portfolio approach that allows him or her opportunities to “assemble relevant abstract conceptual and case-specific knowledge components” (Jacobsen & Spiro, 1993, p. 3), better explain or organize those knowledge components, and then hold and examine them, almost as concrete objects, before putting them out into the world.
When considering whether new forms of media can alter our ways of thinking, we can reflect on McLuhan’s (1964) argument that the “medium is the message”. How do the new possibilities of the social media and web 2.0 technologies influence our abilities to share ideas? As years’ worth of students have told me, “I am doing it in my head”, ‘it’ being planning, outlining, organizing, preparing for assessments, and otherwise being a student. This is also true for practitioners or academics. ‘Doing it in our heads’ is certainly possible, how do others can access those ideas that are in our heads. With 21st century tools, practitioners can now be much more efficient in sharing their ideas with their community and stakeholders and thus creating the possibilities for growth.
Jacobsen, M., & Spiro, R. (1993). Hypertext Learning Environments, Cognitive Flexibility, and the Transfer of Complex Knowledge: An Empirical Investigation. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Center for the Study of Reading. Champaign, Illinois: College of education. Retrieved September 7, 2014, from https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/17752/ctrstreadtechrepv01993i00573_opt.pdf?sequence=1
McLuhan, M. (1964). Understanding Media. Cornwall: Routledge.
Spiro, R. J. (1993). Cognitive Flexibility, Constructivism, and Hypertext: Random Access Instruction for Advanced Knowledge Acquisition in Ill-Structured Domains. Institute for Learning Technologies. http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/Spiro.html
I have always advocated a goals oriented approach to my work. Similarly to my approach to assessments and curriculum map[ping in which I always try to clarify for students why they are doing any particular work in the classroom by mapping it to the assessments and the course outcomes, I also think it is important to map my own work to the larger strategic plans of the department or faculty with whom I am working.
Please take time to preview some of the work I have been doing. I am always trying to find new ways to collaborate, share my work and make my thinking visible to others.
Well, after an intense job search, I have been appointed as Curriculum Adviser at Western Sydney University. I am thrilled to be here and am digging to the work ahead of me.
I am not quite sure of the role my portfolio and site will play in my new position, but will explore every opportunity.
Engagement in teaching and learning activities is about the best we can hope for when planning our teaching and learning activities. Much has been written on whether or not we can actually teach someone something, or whether we can only create the conditions under which people can then learn something on their own.
In my own experience, I follow the words of Paulo Freire who tells us that the responsibility of the educator is to create the conditions for critical engagement and learning. This means that we must provide the right environment in which our students can flourish. In my work with my own students as teacher trainees, I have worked with the Community of Inquiry Model which provides guidelines for the conditions we must create in order to foster learning. I have written about this model extensively in conjunction with my research.
My main focus when observing teachers in their classrooms is to determine if the students are engaged with the activities and the content. If they are, then the teacher is achieving his or her goals.
Scroll down to see the presentation
I am currently participating in a Poll Everywhere webinar. They are using the 'GoToWebinar' software, which seems to be quite effective. In the past few weeks I have used Skype, Zoom and GoToMeeting for different online group activities. Today, as I watch and participate in the activities, I am struck by how powerful the simple act of getting people to perform small tasks can be to capture our focus and attention.
During the webinar, they were able to bring us into the conversation through a variety of options. One was to allow questions on the side as we watched the presentation. In this instance, the moderator / presenter needed to be careful to actually check the question box to make sure that the audience questions were answered in a timely fashion and in context of what was happening on the screen. I asked a couple questions and the moderator actually noted that, "Paul asked the following question, ...". This lets me know that I am being heard and the quick response and full answer was very useful. In this example, the moderator was using text messaging to let people respond and so, since I am in Canada, I did not want to send a text and asked about this. He was able to show how others could answer via text from almost anywhere in the world and not incur large charges on their phone.
By asking questions in a timely manner, he was able to keep the presentation moving smoothly and get a large number of people to respond properly to the answers. In many cases, the success of the polls is highly dependent on everyone answering so that there is an abundance od data and ideas being shared which can then be rolled back into the presentation. This may seem obvious, but the importance of this must be stressed.
As each poll is finished, there are a number of options for retrieving and preserving the date. The most simple means is to capture a screen shot of the poll. The poll does let you create a lovely screen shot or a downloadable slide which can then be shared with students or the group afterwards for review. This could be embedded in a Flickr album, if there are numerous slides and then the album could be embedded in a blog or other online 'article' such as might be found in a BlackBoard or Moodle blog or content screen
There are actually a wide range of great features including an extensive student response capture feature that integrates with BlackBoard and soon, Moodle. These will allow participation grades as well or a wide range of group activities such as group quizzes with large groups of students. If you have 80 - 100 students, you can put them in groups of 5-7 and then have one recorder for each group to add their response. The answers are more or less immediate and so this could be a very exciting activity.
One idea that the moderator mentions, and that I have actually done in the past is to get an assistant to help manage the polls from a laptop. As you progress, you can actually activate each poll individually yourself from a mobile device, or you can get a student or teaching assistant to manage the polls from their laptop.
One of the true values of being able to let students or the audience participate in presentations this way can be found in Freire (1996), who states that the truly reflective and liberated educator,
“presents the information to the students for their consideration, reconsiders her own considerations as the students express their own” (p. 62).
By allowing our audience and students to present their ideas to each other, we allow a sense of teaching presence, which is the ability to ask questions of each other and challenge each other's ideas and perceptions. This creates a sense of cognitive dissonance in which we feel unsure, or out of equilibrium. We are then naturally inclined to then try to adjust our own ideas or those around us by seeking or creating new ideas to allow us to reestablish equilibrium. Knowledge is purpose and that causes us to be engaged.
As I listen to the Education Fast Forward webinar, I am very interested and intrigued by many of the comments. I am going to try and capture a few as we go along.
One comment came from a content provider in the UK. He noted that despite the fears and hesitations in using mobile technology, over 90% of teachers use mobile devices to access their content. His point was that lets stop worrying about these devices and just get on with it. Similarly, a speaker from India noted that although mobile learning was being piloted all over the country and great efforts being made to use mobiles, they are actually banned in most schools.
Another comment noted that how can we pursue mobile learning if teachers are not familiar themselves with this technology. I tweeted that perhaps teachers could learn with their students. Teaching does not necessarily mean learn first, teach later. Many people are asking about teacher training with mobile learning technology. Others are saying and repeating, just get on with it.
One comment stated that since most people just want to get on with it despite cautions and concerns, he would like to see tweets about how to start using mobiles tomorrow. I tweeted that we could start with our own blogs and try to use features that are mobile friendly. Perhaps that is a good topic for me to pursue on my site?
For example, when putting images in mobile blogs, make sure you use the "alt-text" feature so that screen readers can read the image for blind people or if the image is not loading properly in the many different phones available.